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ANZAC 2015 – Brian Miller
Dave Goodwin 4761 184 5 Dickson St / Peter Stapleton Kahn Academy videos ==
NEIL MILITARY CROSS (anzac gazetted 1921) =- Photo Henry plus his board?
12 000 New Zealanders at Gallipoli – 4700 were injured and 2700 killed.
– 100 years ago today thousands of AUSTRALIAN and NZ troops landed on the shores of the Gallipoli Peninsula in Turkey.
– Called the Australian New Zealand Army Corp. ANZACs.
– Impossible task – 8 months of hell. – ANZAC day held ever since to remember
– Now we remember all soldiers and civilians in all wars and on both side.
SO WHAT WERE THEY DOING IN TURKEY ?
– Kingdoms & Empires been fighting for hundreds of years in Europe
– but this was a time of change
– Industrialization meant Kings were losing power to the people and industry – class systems were breaking down
– WW1 was triggered by an assassination after Austria Hungarian Empire took over part of Bosnia
– But European kingdoms had alliances between them so after the assassination – it was like dominoes 2 groups Brits French Russia v Germany Austria/ Hungn
– Germany was a young nation trying to grow under the old powers
– Felt boxed in by Britain France and Russia – so it enticed the Ottoman Empire to join them.
– The Ottoman Empire based in Turkey had run for hundreds of years but was falling apart. And all the countries were picking off the remnants because the Ottamans controlled all the Middle East for hundreds of years and everyone wanted the oil.
When WW1 started mid 1914 – the general feeling in Britain was ‘THEY WOULD BE HOME BY XMAS’. But after a few weeks – thousands had been killed and it was STALEMATE
– Industrialized countries fighting with new technology evenly balanced and so it ended in a 500 mile long Western front for years.
335 w = 2.5 mins
WINSTON CHURCHILL WAS 40 YEARS OLD & LORD OF THE ADMIRALTY
He drew up a plan to take out the Ottoman Empire out of the war and make a sea route to Russia for men and supplies. But this meant taking British fleet through the Mediterranean Sea and through a narrow 60km strait that divided Europe from Asia to get to Constantinople. (Istanbul)
The plan not popular – looked impossible – But Churchill pushed ahead and was given 10 obsolete Battleships and very few men.
The Otago Peninsula has one gun at Taiaroa Heads which was built in 1880s for an ‘imaginary’ Russian threat. To get to Constantinople Churchill had to send a British fleet down a narrow strait 3 times the length of the Otago Harbour – with not one gun at the front but guns and forts all along both sides of the strait and floating mines.
6 old English and 4 French battleships arrived – at the entrance. On the first day of battle the Admiral of the British Fleet had a nervous attack and was replaced. – and 3 ships were sunk and3 badly damaged so they withdrew. Churchill then decided to send in troops to climb over the hills and take out the guns and forts along the strait. BUT the war office would not give him many as they were tied up on the Western Front.
The ANZACs had been training in Egypt so 100 years ago today thousands of Australian & Kiwis were deposited on the wrong beach on the Gallipoli Peninsula.
The Peninsula is 70 Km long – but the area of the Gallipoli campaign is about the size of the Otago Peninsula.
– Like the ANZACS being deposited on Boulder beach (instead of the more open Sandfly BaY and being asked to climb over the top and take out the guns and forts all along the harbour. A bit wider – more hilly – covered in scub AND the cliffs were much steeper and the Turkish Army stood at the top. 1700 dead and wounded in first 24 hours.
– Next 8 months they underwent hell as they fought to climb over the peninsula and take out the guns on the strait. But never got to the other side – The Turks were fighting for their homeland and always had the higher ground. The Turks could continually supply equipment and troops along the mainland – But the ANZACS relied on ships from Egypt – lack of water
The thousands Anzacs trapped on the hillsides and beaches were under constant bombardment – had a lack of ammunition – water – latrines were holes – no toilet paper – wipe your hand on your ass and then the grass – flies – 80% had dysentery – typhoid – jaundice – lack of food – always lack of water – no fruit and vegetables – uniforms itched, scraped – held lice in the seems – NO BREAK R & R
After a month there were so many bloated rotting corpses in no mans land, the smell was so bad they could hardly eat. A truce was held one day so soldiers on both sides could walk over and bury the bodies. The soldiers met to bury – swapped smokes – and food –
– One of the Turkish soldiers pointed to the bodies and said ‘ That’s politics’
– An Australian soldier after meeting the Turks – wrote to his mother saying – ‘Whatever you read in the newspapers – these Turks are real gentlemen’
– Bodies all mixed up – Turks and ANZACs buried together
Anzacs buried 3000 Turks –
– At 4.30 back to trenches. Then fired aimless shots into sky and that night there was no shooting. Next day, they started killing each other again.
They dug tunnels underneath each other to blow the other party up.
They had to survive in sweltering summer – bush fires that killed people – snow and floods trenches in winter. Frostbite. Seldom swim – hit by bullets – MUG water teeth wash –
Despite all this the Turks and Kiwis developed a respect for each other – None of them wanted to be there. After 8 months the British War Office admitted defeat – troops withdrawn and Churchill was demoted.
THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN IS BIG IN NZ BECAUSE OF THE HORROR AND GIVEN SUCH AN IMPOSSIBLE TASK. BUT GALLIPOLI WAS NOT JUST ABOUT ANZACS
2700 NZ Killed – BUT that was less than 3% of people killed at Gallipoli-
8000 Australians died. 7000 Indians 10 000 French Died, 21 000 British / Irish
= Total 50 000 Allied soldiers
– BUT Turkey lost 86 000 men defending their homeland.
– SO The total deaths at Gallipoli were 130 000 – the population of Dunedin. Killed on and area less than the size of the Otago Peninsula.
– Quarter of a million Turks and Allied soldiers were wounded.
THE GALLIPOLI PENINSULA IS NOW A NATIONAL PARK – CALLED THE ‘PEACE PARK’
THE LEADER OF THE TURKISH ARMY AT GALLIPOLI Went on to be called ATATURK – HE formed the independent country of modern Turkey. – He said to NZ Your sons that died at Gallopoli are now our sons and we will look after them.
The Turks allowed the Kiwis to build a memorial on ANZAC Beach and The ATATURK MEMORIAL was built in WELLINGTON – On steep hills overlooking the water – just like Gallipoli.
The NZ soldiers who fought in Galliploi never got a medal/ The army said we don’t give medals for defeat !!!!!
AFTER GALLIPOLI the ANZACS had to regroup after that disaster and fight on the Western Front for years where they were shelled and gassed – FOR YEARS
– WW1 started 1 bullet – ended 4 years later with 17 Million dead
– called First World War because empires had colonies became involved.
– Over 100 000 New Zealanders (Dunedin) to WW1 60 % were wounded 18 000 died.
– 17 Million – soldiers & civilians Died in WW1 8 Million Horses
– FLU – During WW1 a flu epidemic developed from pigs kept at the front – Europeans were so malnourished that the flu swept around the world and killed perhaps 50 million people. Called Spanish they neutal exposed it –
Soldiers all took it home
– 21 years later in WW2 three times the number of WW1 died about 70 Million
The 20C was the most destructive century ever killing between 150 and 200 million – – More than the previous 2000 years – All because war is MECHANIZED
MACANDREW BAY HAS NO CONCRETE CENOTAPH IN THE PARK
BUT IT HAS 3 WAR MEMORIALS!
1 – When WW2 ended Ladies – we don’t want concrete to remember our men – we want to look to the future.
– In 1953 they built rooms for Plunket Doctor & Library . Next door – How many thousands of babies and people have gone through the Doctors Plunket room & read books from the library since then.
WAR IS VERY PERSONAL AFFECTS FAMILIES FOR GENERATIONS
– 9 names on that plaque Men lost from the Bay – Henry Miller signwriter Greece
– Victor – WW1 Gt Gfather Marion st lost 2 of 4 sons in 2 wars
– My family – Major Neil (MC) – cost him his life Sat on china cabinet for decades – – Captain Lindsay died Anzac day exactly 72 years exhausted – going for long sleep.
We all have stories of brave members that died.
2– The children’s park called the Ralph Ham park after Robyn Webbers father a community man who owned the shop for years . (1950s peace–BrenNelson)
– Ralph’s older brother William Ham was the first New Zealander killed in WW1 in battle of the Suez Canal Feb 1915 against the Ottomans – Suez – Spine
– The shock was so great to Williams father that he died 10 days later.
3 THE SEA WALL – an Anti -War memorial in Macandrew Bay.
Original wall – buried under road was built by a Maori tribe Parihaka from Taranaki.
– First Pacifist Protest in NZ when their land was taken away – they pulled up road markers – lined up on the hill in front of British cannons – sat in front of houses – their children took bread to the soldiers – But they never fought. The men were sent to Dunedin and made to build the seawall.
Anti- War is a valid stance and Anti- War protests are what stopped Vietnam – not bullets. A civil war – more bombs than WW2 – 25 years after Vietnam cNamara the leading politician behind the war said as an old man
‘ We should never have gone there’
WAR HAS NOT GONE AWAY – LAST WEEK WE SENT TROOPS TO THE MIDDLE EAST –
ISIS – Islamic State of Iraq & Syria – are people fighting for a new country .
Seen Horrific acts on TV – they recruite on Facebook
BUT 10 years ago Britain & US invaded Iraq against the advice of the whole of Europe. As one journalist said Day one it was about Sadaam and Day 2 was about OIL. These 2 government said it was about Sadaam’s Weapons of Mass Destruction – It has been recently proven that they knew there were no weapons of mass destruction and they lied to their citizens AND in the process killed over 100 000 civilians.
Our soldiers died for democracy and truth not lies.
The Middle East is a tinder box of religions and oil and the invasion of Iraq and killings has created an anger in a young people. And what are ISIS using for weapons – Billions of $ of epuipment that America left behind
Soldiers never want their children to go to war.
To honour them we should –
– Educate ourselves about world affairs and cultures
– Stay Nuclear Free
– Be seen as a peace keeping nation.
– Vote for honest politicians
Desmond Tutu said – ‘If you want to make peace – you don’t talk to your friends. You talk to your enemies.
Bil Keane said –
The past is history. The future is a mystery. But this moment right now is a gift. – That’s why it’s called the ‘Present’
-WE NEED TO USE THE PRESENT WISELY
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Albert Einstein said – ‘Peace cannot be kept by force – It can only be achieved by understanding.